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Sputnik V (Russian: Спутник V) or Gam-COVID-Vac (Russian: Гам-КОВИД-Вак) is an adenovirus viral vector vaccine for COVID-19 developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology in Russia. It is the world's first registered combination vector vaccine for the prevention of COVID-19, having been registered on 11 August 2020 by the Russian Ministry of Health.
The 'V' in its name refers to 'Victory [over COVID-19]', according to Kirill Dmitriev, CEO of the Russian Direct Investment Fund.
Gam-COVID-Vac was initially approved for distribution in Russia and then in 59 other countries (as of April 2021) on the preliminary results of Phase I–II studies eventually published on 4 September 2020. Approval in early August of Gam-COVID-Vac was met with criticism in mass media and discussions in the scientific community as to whether approval was justified in the absence of robust scientific research confirming safety and efficacy.
Emergency mass-distribution of the vaccine began in December 2020 in countries including Russia, Argentina, Belarus, Hungary, Serbia, Pakistan (in limited quantities), the Philippines (in limited quantities) and the United Arab Emirates. By February 2021 over a billion doses of the vaccine had been ordered for immediate distribution worldwide.